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Есть реферат по английскому языку. Тема реферата Holidays of Russia (Праздники России). Реферат хорошо и красочно оформлен. Каждый праздник описан отдельно. Вот часть реферата.
Holidays of Russia.
Russian holidays it is the holidays of Russian people connected with widespread national traditions of their carrying out. For a long time already in Russia there was a set of remarkable holidays. People drove round dances, sang songs, and lived not boringly. Every day, what that - a holiday. But gradually traditions and holidays varied. In Russia there are also state holidays. As state eight national holidays, first of all, are called, are recognized non-working, holidays, namely: New Year of the first and on second of January and a Christmas on seventh of January. The international women's day on eighth of March, the Holiday of Spring and work of the first and on second of May, a Victory Day on ninth of May, Independence Day of Russia on twelfth of June, the Day of accord and reconciliation on seventh of November, the Constitution day of the Russian Federation on twelfth of December. For the state holidays, in Russia now, the combination of what remained from the previous historical periods, and new, come to a life finding by the country of the sovereignty and change of a political system is characteristic.
In Russia a great number of Russians, with hunting celebrating Christmas, prefer New Year. Winter holidays are tightened for some weeks: at first we mark the western Christmas, then New Year, then orthodox Christmas, and then old New Year. But nevertheless a favorite holiday in this long train of celebrations - New Year, mark in the night from December, 31st for January, 1st. It is the holiday most ancient and most favorite among Russians.
The main attributes of celebrating of New Year it: a live fur-tree (the truth, in modern Russia the artificial fur-tree - because of availability and possibility of reusable use is preferred), various Christmas-tree decorations, and also obligatory gifts for favorite and close people. The main characters, it is possible to tell, heroes of a holiday are Father Frost and the Snow Maiden - without them cannot manage not only mass celebrating, but also a private congratulation that madly pleases children.
The basic dishes on a celebratory table make salads, hot, fruit (tangerines) and a considerable quantity of spirits (in particular champagne). Any New Year does not do without fireworks, Bengal fires, crackers and salutes.
In comparison with other world, Russia actively celebrates two New Year's holidays. One in the night from December, thirty first for January, first, and the second, "Old New year" on thirteenth of January that surprises foreigners got on New Year's holidays to Russia as at the majority of the countries arrival of New year means much, only change of a calendar cycle and widely it is not marked (celebrated), attaching special significance to Christmas. Now it seems to us that so was always. But the tradition of a meeting of New Year is much younger, than in the countries of Europe. New Year in Ancient Russia, as well as at many other people, began in March and merged with the pagan holiday of a pancake week marking a seeing-off of winter and a meeting of spring. In the tenth century with Christianity acceptance to Russia has come юлианский a calendar on which year began on first of September. But only in the end of the fifteenth century this date began to be marked (celebrated) officially as the beginning of church and civil New Year. And only Peter I, carrying out calendar reform, in 1700 has established (installed) the beginning of New Year since January, 1st. The special decree Peter I demanded solemn and cheerful celebrating of this event. Moscow, therefore all celebrating was capital then passed (took place) on Red Square. However since 1704 of a celebration have been transferred (carried) to northern capital. However, in those days not feast and national гуляния was the main thing. By January, 1st of the house of grandees and commoners were decorated by fur-tree or pine branches which needed to be dressed up not toys, as now, and fruit, vegetables, nuts and even eggs. And all products were not only an ornament, but also symbols: apples were a symbol of fertility, egg a symbol of harmony and full well-being. Since then the meeting of New Year with a green fur-tree, needles, and then with Father Frost and the Snow Maiden became on first of January traditional in our country. Old New Year is the holiday marked (celebrated) according to New Year on юлианскому to a calendar (now in the night from 13 for January, 14th) and being, as a matter of fact, a historical echo of change of chronology. It (He) is known and popular in Russia though it is marked (celebrated) also in Serbia, Switzerland and some other countries. It (He) is marked (celebrated) in a greater degree by those who could not meet New Year on thirty first of December. And also the Russian orthodox Christians who observe from November, twenty till January, sixth the Christmas post and which to meet New year on Julian sky style more conveniently not to break instructions of the Christmas post.
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